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Jan 21 2015

Dental Research Seminar

Published by under Dentistry
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Date: January 29, 2015 (Thursday)

Time: 12:45 p.m. to 1:45 p.m.

Venue: Lecture Theatre II, G/F, The Prince Philip Dental Hospital

 

Presenter: Dr. Lee Hiu Man Gillian, PhD Candidate (12:45 p.m. to 1:15 p.m.)

Title: Clinical guideline for caries prevention and management by caries risk assessment for pre-school children in Hong Kong

 

Abstract: Dental treatment received by pre-school children with dental caries in Hong Kong is sub-optimal. Considerable variations in their care also exist among dental practitioners. Clinical practice guidelines assist decision making in clinical practice to produce optimal, evidence-based and equitable patient care. Traditional guideline development requires substantial amount of time, expertise and resources. A clinical practice guideline for caries prevention and management by caries risk assessment for pre-school children in Hong Kong was developed using ADAPTE process and internet-based Delphi consensus with the collaboration of the Hong Kong Society of Paediatric Dentistry. The systematic approach to develop this consensus evidence-based clinical guideline will be described. The guideline recommendations will also be presented.

 

Presenter: Mr. Jiang Shan, PhD Candidate (1:15 p.m. to 1:45 p.m.)

Title: Motivation interviewing in improving oral health of preschool children: a randomized controlled trial

 

Abstract: Dental caries (tooth decay) is highly prevalent and is largely attributable to unhealthy behaviors. Prevailing health education (HE) fails to achieve sustainable behavioral changes. This randomized controlled trial incorporates motivational interviewing (MI) and interactive caries risk assessment (RA) into HE and investigates the effectiveness of HE, HE+MI, and HE+MI+RA in changing oral health behaviors and preventing caries in preschool children. Six hundred and ninety-two (692) children with unfavorable oral health behaviors (insufficient toothbrushing and/or frequent snacking) were randomly assigned to 3 groups. Respective interventions were delivered to parents. Preliminary (6-month) findings showed significantly greater improvements in parental efficacy and children’s behaviors in HE+MI and HE+MI+RA groups, as compared with HE group.

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Jan 20 2015

Dental Research Seminar

Published by under Dentistry
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Date: January 28, 2015 (Wednesday)

Time: 12:45 p.m. to 1:45 p.m.

Venue: Lecture Theatre II, G/F, The Prince Philip Dental Hospital

 

Presenter: Miss Zhan Jingyu, PhD Candidate (12:45 p.m. to 1:15 p.m.)

Title: Use of sucrose substitutes in the prevention of dental caries

 

Abstract: The important role sucrose plays in the initiation and progression of dental caries has been shown in laboratory and human studies. A reasonable approach to prevent caries is to substitute sucrose in food and drinks with less cariogenic sweetening substances. At present, there are a number of sucrose substitutes in the market which are non- or low-cariogenic. Isomaltulose (alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-1, 6-fructose) is a natural sugar with a sweet taste which can provide energy and does not induce side effects, such as diarrhea, even when ingested in large quantity. It cannot be easily fermented by plaque bacteria and may be less cariogenic than sucrose. Findings of the series of laboratory studies we have conducted to investigate the cariogenicity of isomaltulose will be reported.

 

Presenter: Miss Wen Weiye, PhD Candidate (1:15 p.m. to 1:45 p.m.)

Title: Family-centered oral health promotion for new parents and their infants: a randomized controlled trial

 

Abstract: Early childhood caries (ECC) is a global health problem that causes pain and infection to the children affected. It is a common disease among preschool children in Hong Kong (31%-42% for 3-5 years old). ECC is found to be associated with a higher risk of dental caries in the primary and permanent dentitions and has negative effects on the nutrition, growth and development and general health of the children affected. We are now conducting a 4-year randomized controlled trial of family-centered oral health promotion for new parents aiming to increase the proportion of parents brushing their infants’ teeth, establishing proper feeding and dietary habits, reducing the transfer of MS (the main kind of cariogenic bacteria) from the parents to their infants and then reducing the risk of early childhood caries (ECC) at 3 years. We also aim to improve the oral hygiene status of the new parents and prevention of oral diseases among themselves.

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Dec 31 2014

Dental Research Seminar

Published by under Dentistry
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Date: January 8, 2015 (Thursday)

Time: 12:45 p.m. to 1:30 p.m.

Venue: Lecture Theatre II, G/F, The Prince Philip Dental Hospital

 

Presenter: Dr. Daood Umer, PhD Candidate

 

Title: The effect of quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) on bacterial biofilms and resin-dentin adhesives: invitro and spectroscopic studies

 

Abstract: Incomplete removal of caries-infected dentine during cavity preparation may result in secondary caries formation and entrapment of bacteria within the cavity. The quaternary ammonium compound, 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (SiQAC), is commonly used as antimicrobial coatings of medical devices and garment fabrics mainly due to its long, lipophilic C18 alkyl chain that penetrates bacterial cell membrane and causes cell death. More recently, SiQAC has been coupled to other trialkoxysilanes with methacryloxy or epoxy functionalities via sol-gel platform chemistry that utilises tetrethoxysilane or dimethyldiethoxysilane as the anchoring unit.

 

This study evaluated the effect of different concentrations of QAS (quaternary ammonium silanes)-containing cavity disinfectants on bond strength and nanoleakage of ethanol and acetone based adhesives; alongwith Raman spectra of evaluation of dentin substrates with multispecies biofilms grown and treated. The study was also classified to verify the susceptibility profile of different bacterial strains to QAS disin­fectants. The use of 20% QAS cavity disinfectants improved dentine bond strength and interfacial Nanoleakage with Raman micro spectroscopy showing significant effect of QAS compounds against multispecies biofilms resulted in 80% elimination of bacterial strains.

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Dec 22 2014

Dental Research Seminar

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Date: December 29, 2014 (Monday)
Time: 12:45 p.m. to 1:30 p.m.
Venue: Lecture Theatre II, G/F, The Prince Philip Dental Hospital

Presenter: Mr. Yuan Changyong, MPhil Candidate

Title: EphrinB2 enhances angiogenesis and anastomosis of bioengineered prevascularized dental pulp construct

Abstract:
Aims: To reveal the role of ephrinB2 in angiogenesis during coculture of stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC); and lead to enhance anastomoses between prevascularised dental pulp construct and host vasculature.

Methods: EphrinB2 gene expression in SCAP and HUVEC will be modified by transfection and RNA interference (RNAi). Modified SCAP and HUVEC will be cocultured in biomimetic extracellular matrix, and the number and the average length of sprouts will be examined. The phosphorylation of ephrinB2 and EphB4 in SCAP cocultured with HUVEC will be detected using western blot. Prevascularized SCAP/EphrinB2 and HUVEC will be seeded into root canal, and implanted into immunodeficient mice at the same time, SCAP/vector and HUVEC only will be used as control. Implants will be harvested at days-1,-2,-3,-5,-7 and the formation of new blood vessel will be detected using immunohistochemical technique.

Expected Results: 1. EphrinB2 plays a critical role in SCAP enrolment as pericyte-like cells and facilitate assembly with endothelial cells. 2. Overexpression of ephrinB2 in SCAP and HUVEC in pulp tissue regeneration will accelerate the formation of capillary networks.

Conclusion: EphrinB2 may play an important role in angiogenesis and in vivo anastomosis, and could be a new target molecule for improving angiogenesis during regenerative endodontic therapy.

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Dec 16 2014

Dental Research Seminar

Published by under Dentistry
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Date: December 23, 2014 (Tuesday)
Time: 12:45 p.m. to 1:30 p.m.
Venue: Lecture Theatre II, G/F, The Prince Philip Dental Hospital

Presenter: Mr. Zhang Jiaguan, MPhil Candidate

Title: A randomized clinical trial on the effect of a chlorine dioxide spray on dental plaque and respiratory pathogens in institutionalized elders

Abstract: Long term care institutions face a formidable challenge with the projected increase in the population of dependent elders in the coming decades. Poorer oral health has been consistently observed amongst institutionalized elders compared to community-dwelling elders, and this has been attributed to a number of factors including compromised physical and mental capabilities, resulting in a general loss of functional independence. This is further compounded by a general lack of awareness and neglect of oral hygiene by nursing home staff, whom residents depend on for the majority of their daily selfcare. Absence of daily oral hygiene results in the build-up of dental plaque and allows the uninhibited growth of opportunistic bacteria, which have been shown to cause lower respiratory tract infections such as aspiration pneumonia, one of the most common infectious causes of death among institutionalized elders. While there is a general consensus that an antimicrobial agent should be used as part of an optimal daily oral hygiene regimen in institutionalized elders, agreement has yet be reached regarding the optimal agent and its method of application. Delivery of an antimicrobial agent as a mouthwash may be problematic for frail elders who may be mentally impaired and unable to follow instructions, or have swallowing impairments and at a risk for aspiration. The use of an oral spray has been shown to be effective in other patient groups, and may be more appropriate and applicable for institutionalized elders. While chlorhexidine serves as the gold standard for anti-plaque effectiveness, prolonged usage is contraindicated due to side effects which include tooth staining and calculus formation. Chlorine dioxide is an effective antimicrobial agent, and short term studies have suggested a comparable anti-plaque activity compared to chlorhexidine, as well as the absence of these side effects. We  now propose to test the effectiveness of a chlorine dioxide spray against a chlorhexidine spray in the reduction of dental plaque, oral respiratory pathogens, and incidence of aspiration pneumonia amongst institutionalized elders. All participants will be expected to benefit from the administered interventions, and we hope to develop an optimal oral hygiene protocol which can easily be adopted at a low cost by nursing homes regionally in Hong Kong, and potentially worldwide.

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Nov 10 2014

Dental Research Seminar

Published by under Dentistry
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Date: November 17, 2014 (Monday)
Time: 12:45 p.m. to 1:30 p.m.
Venue: Lecture Theatre II, G/F, The Prince Philip Dental Hospital

Presenter: Ms. Li Lingwei, PhD Candidate

Title: A longitudinal study of obesity and dental caries among Hong Kong adolescents

Abstract: Obesity greatly impacts adolescents’ physical and psychological health. Obesity and dental caries are thought to share a common pathogenesis in nutrition, parenting, lifestyle, physical, social environment, as well as psychosocial factors. Studies have been conducted among various countries to investigate the relationship between adiposity and tooth decay. However, most of these studies were performed in a cross-sectional setting and indicated conflicting findings. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between obesity and dental caries among Hong Kong adolescents over time. In this seminar, a systematic review will be presented to highlight the current research status. The methodology of the present study will also be introduced.

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Oct 08 2014

Dental Research Seminar

Published by under Dentistry
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Date: October 15, 2014 (Wednesday)
Time: 12:45 p.m. to 1:30 p.m.
Venue: Lecture Theatre II, G/F, The Prince Philip Dental Hospital

Presenter: Mr. Wu Zhaoming, MPhil Candidate

Title:The role of TRAF-interacting protein (TRAIP) during craniofacial development

Abstract: The control of cell proliferation is crucial for the craniofacial development. But the mechanism of how the cell proliferation is coordinated during the development remains to be elucidated. The TRAF-interacting protein (TRAIP) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase, which plays a role in cell proliferation and differentiation. It has also found been to interact with the cell cycle related protein PCNA. In this study the expression pattern of TRAIP during different stages of craniofacial development will be investigated and its potential relationship with cell proliferation will be evaluated. Its potential upstream and downstream signals will also be explored.

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Sep 22 2014

Dental Research Seminar

Published by under Dentistry
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Date: September 26, 2014 (Friday)
Time: 12:45 p.m. to 1:30 p.m.
Venue: Lecture Theatre II, G/F, The Prince Philip Dental Hospital

Presenter: Dr. Bhoj Manasi, MPhil candidate

Title: De novo bioengineering of a pulp replacement using stem cell-seeded RGD alginate based micro environments

Abstract: The aim of the study was to create a three-dimensional pulp stem cell seeded construct infused with inductive tissue specific growth factors VEGF121 and FGF-2 in an alginate scaffold supplemented with dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The combination of these elements into a single system in the core of the construct for inducing angiogenesis and further coating the construct with another layer thereby initiating dentinogenesis is an innovative design for the formation of de novo pulp tissue in vitro. Four study groups with different permutation and combination were fabricated replicating the gutta-percha shape, later analyzed for proliferation, viability and growth factor release profile. The results of the first study show significant difference in groups supplemented with morphogens with a p value a potential for dental pulp regeneration

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Sep 10 2014

Dental Research Seminar

Published by under Dentistry
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Date: September 17, 2014 (Wednesday)

Time: 12:45 p.m. to 1:30 p.m.

Venue: Lecture Theatre II, G/F, The Prince Philip Dental Hospital

Presenter: Mr. Ekambaram Manikandan, PhD Candidate

Title: Aspects of solvent on dentin bonding

Abstract: Degradation starts at the resin-dentin bonded interfaces within a few months of adhesive bonding.  The simplified dental adhesives that are routinely used in the contemporary clinical dental practice are extremely hydrophilic and are prone to hydrolytic degradation. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and cysteine cathepsins (CC) are the two types of proteolytic enzymes that have been shown to degrade the un-infiltrated demineralized collagen at the bottom of the hybrid layer in the bonded interfaces. These enzymes are hydrolases; therefore, the presence of water in the hybrid layer will be a favourable factor for degradation of the dentin-bonded interfaces. Ethanol-wet bonding (EWB) with hydrophobic adhesive could prevent the hydrolytic degradation of dentin bonded interfaces. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that chlorhexidine (CHX) treatment of demineralized dentin prior to resin bonding preserved resin-dentin bond durability by inhibition of dentin-matrix bound MMP and CC. However, water in the hybrid layer could lead to easier removal of CHX from demineralized dentin, when compared to ethanol. 1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) is a dentin collagen cross-linker shown to preserve dentin bond durability in vitro. EDC solution for dentin collagen crosslinking is routinely prepared in water, though water incorporation in the hybrid layer would lead to dentin bond degradation. Our research experiments aimed to study the role of alternative solvents in the current experimental strategies for the enhancement of resin-dentin bond durability. Within the limitations of our research work, it could be concluded that solvents play a significant role in the enhancement of dentin bond durability. The choice of solvent depends on the bonding protocols applied. In general, ethanol and acetone are better than water for preservation of resin-dentin bond durability.

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Aug 28 2014

Dental Research Seminar

Published by under Dentistry
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Date: September 4, 2014 (Thursday)
Time: 12:45 p.m. to 1:45 p.m.
Venue: Lecture Theatre II, G/F, The Prince Philip Dental Hospital

Presenter: Ms. Zhuang Longfei, PhD Candidate (12:45 p.m. to 1:15 p.m.)
Title: Periodontal and peri-implant microbiota in subjects with healthy and inflamed tissues

Abstract: Bacteria, in the form of biofilm, has been shown to play a critical role in the etiology and pathogenesis of periodontal and peri-implant infectious diseases. Studies have shown that distinctively different dental plaque is commonly found in healthy versus inflamed gingivae and mucosa. It should be noted, however, that in most of these studies, the healthy and diseased plaque samples were collected from different individuals. To address this important issue, subjects who were periodontally involved and/or had inflamed peri-implant tissues, and also had equivalent healthy control sites were recruited in my studies. The results indicated that there were larger differences in the composition of the microbial communities found in different individuals, than the differences in microbial composition found between the two sites with different probing depths in the same individual. The putative periodontal pathogens were identified both in healthy and inflamed tissues within the same subjects.

Presenter: Mr. Yau Tak Wai David, MPhil Candidate (1:15 p.m. to 1:45 p.m.)
Title: Bayesian Longitudinal Polytomous Item Response Models for Child Perception Questionnaire

Abstract: Traditional approach to measuring latent constructs is simple yet involving unrealistic assumptions. The item response theory (IRT) not only can circumvent the unrealistic assumptions, useful item and test properties can also be revealed. CPQ11-14 is a pioneer and widely adopted oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) instrument for children aged 11 to 14. This study aims to explore the CPQ11-14 psychometric properties by IRT and investigate factors affecting changes in OHRQoL over time. Of particular interests are the identification of potentially biased items, investigation of the reliability under the IRT framework and item discriminatory power.

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